Robi to świetnie Michael J. Behe w książce The edge of evolution : the search for the limits of Darwinism. W teorii Darwina są trzy elementy: wspólne pochodzenie gatunków, selekcja naturalna oraz losowa mutacja genetyczna. Należy pamiętać, że ten trzeci element jest założeniem nie udowodnionym empirycznie.

There must be a biological route to the structure that stands a reasonable chance of success in nature. In other words, variation, selection, and inheritance will only work if there is also a smooth evolutionary pathway leading from biological point A to biological point B.

The question of the pathway is as critical in evolution as it is in everyday life. In everyday life, if you had to walk blindfolded from point A to point B, it would matter very much where A and B were, and what lay between. Suppose you had to walk blindfolded (and, to make the example closer to the spirit of Darwinism, blind drunk) from A to B to get some reward — say, a pot of gold. What’s more, suppose in your sightless dizziness the only thought you could hold in your head was to climb higher whenever you got the chance (this mimics natural selection constantly driving a species to higher levels of fitness). On the one hand, if you just had to go from the bottom of a single enclosed stairwell to the top to reach the pot of gold, there might be little problem. On the other hand, if you had to walk blindfolded from one side of an unfamiliar city to the top of a skyscraper on the other side — across busy streets, bypassing hazards, through doorways — you would have enormous trouble.

This point is crucial: If there is not a smooth, gradually rising, easily found evolutionary pathway leading to a biological system within a reasonable time, Darwinian processes won’t work. In this book we’ll examine just how demanding a requirement that is.

The book concluded that there were at least some structures at the foundation of life that were beyond random mutation.